The National Health Insurance system is organized by the government in Japan, and every body must join. Contributions vary according to income. When you go to a doctor you have to present your Health Insurance Card at the reception. You pay the gap between the doctors fee and the insurance rebate each time you see the doctor. Although the prescription system is now being introduced in which a patient goes to a chemist, there are still many hospitals that sell medicine on the spot. This is due to until quite recently, medicines that required a doctors prescription were supplied by doctors at their clinics or at the hospital but not by pharmacies in Japan. Some supported this as convenient since it saved time and energy (No need to visit a doctor and a pharmacy when you are sick), others claim that it gave more control to doctors which may result in negative consequences such as over prescription and collaborating with drug companies. General medicines are available at pharmacies but not at supermarkets.
It is a usual practice in Japan that people avoid bathing when they have a cold. To make the body warm is believed to encourage the virus to become more active, and having a Japanese bath requires to much energy, which does not help the patient, particulary when he or she has a high temperature.